DESCRIPTION OF THE REGISTRANT’S SECURITIES
REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12 OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Kubient, Inc. has one class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended: our common stock, par value $0.00001 per share (“common stock”).
Authorized Capital Stock
We are currently authorized to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of capital stock consisting of: 95,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.00001 per share and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value of $0.00001 per share.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock. Our board of directors is not obligated to declare a dividend. It is not anticipated that dividends will be paid in the foreseeable future.
In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Holders of our common stock do not have preemptive rights to subscribe to additional shares if issued. There is no conversion, redemption, sinking fund or similar provisions regarding the common stock. All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.
Under the terms of our certificate of incorporation, as amended and restated (the “certificate of incorporation”), our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more classes or series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.
The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and to determine such preferred stock’s rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. Presently, our board of directors has not authorized the creation or issuance of any shares or series of preferred stock.
Authorized but Unissued Shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock
The authorized but unissued shares of our common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of The Nasdaq Capital Market. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could make more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.
The Delaware General Corporate Law (“DGCL”) and our amended and restated bylaws (the “bylaws”) include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company and discouraging takeover bids. These provisions may also have the effect of encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.
No Cumulative Voting
The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless our certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our bylaws provide that there shall be no cumulative voting.
Written Consent of Stockholders
Our bylaws provide that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting.
Meetings of Stockholders
Our bylaws provide that a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, or the holders of outstanding shares of common stock entitled to cast not less than 75% of the votes in a meeting may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.
Advance Notice Requirements
Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before an annual or special meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. The notice must contain certain information specified in the bylaws.
Our certificate of incorporation requires approval by holders of at least 662∕3% of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, in addition to any rights of the holders of our outstanding capital stock to vote on such amendment under the DGCL. Our bylaws requires approval by either a majority of our board of directors or holders of at least 662∕3% of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, in addition to any rights of the holders of our outstanding capital stock to vote on such amendment under the DGCL.
Blank Check Preferred Stock
Our certificate of incorporation provides for 5,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest, or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of us or our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring, or preventing a change in control of us.
Delaware General Corporation Law
In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An “interested stockholder” is a person or entity who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or did own within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:
• before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
• upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances; or
• at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Any provision of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
Exclusive Forum for Resolution of Disputes
Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, to the fullest extent permitted by law, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of or based on a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers, or other employees to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation, or our bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. For the avoidance of doubt, this forum selection clause will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.
We recognize that the forum selection clause may impose additional litigation costs on stockholders who assert the provision is not enforceable and may impose more general additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claims. Additionally, the forum selection clause in our bylaws may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us. The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than our stockholders.
Limitations of Director Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers
As permitted by the DGCL, provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws limit or eliminate the personal liability of our directors. Consequently, directors will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages or breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:
• any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;
• any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
• any unlawful payments related to dividends or unlawful stock repurchases, redemptions or other distributions; or
• any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
These limitations of liability do not alter director liability under the federal securities laws and do not affect the availability of equitable remedies, such as an injunction or rescission.
In addition, our bylaws provide that:
• we will indemnify our directors, officers and, in the discretion of our board of directors, certain employees, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, subject to limited exceptions, including an exception for indemnification in connection with a proceeding (or counterclaim) initiated by such persons; and
• we will advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and, in the discretion of our board of directors, certain officers and employees, in connection with legal proceedings, subject to limited exceptions.
We also maintain general liability insurance that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers, or persons who control us, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
These provisions may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors for breach of their fiduciary duty. These provisions may also have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders. Furthermore, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions. We believe that these provisions, the indemnification agreements and the insurance are necessary to attract and retain talented and experienced directors and officers.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is VStock Transfer, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 18 Lafayette Place, Woodmere, NY 11598, and its telephone number is (212) 828-8436.
The Nasdaq Capital Market
Our common stock is presently quoted on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “KBNT”. Our common stock purchase warrants issued in connection with our initial public offering in August 2020 are currently listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “KBNTW.”